China should pay attention to the sustainable deve

2022-08-24
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China should pay attention to the sustainable development of agricultural equipment in many aspects. First, the equipment and problems of sustainable agriculture in China. 1. Water saving irrigation technology equipment and problems of sustainable agriculture. China's water resources are scarce. Each year, there is a water shortage of 30billion m3, a drought affected area of 20million Hm2, and 80million rural people across the country have difficulty drinking water. Therefore, we must find a way to save water and develop water-saving agriculture. At present, the promotion of water-saving irrigation technology and equipment has been mature, but there are still some problems to be solved. First of all, the sprinkler and connector forms of water-saving irrigation machines and mobile machines in China are basically the same, with a small range of options, uneven rotation of sprinkler and easy wear. Wind resistant sprinkler and special sprinkler need to be researched and developed. Secondly, there are fewer varieties of domestic micro sprinklers and drippers in micro irrigation technology. Key technologies such as complete set of system and control equipment, filters, fertilizer applicators, nozzle node blockage also need to be broken through. Third, the level of "three modernizations" of water-saving equipment is low, and the standards need to be further improved

2 technical equipment and problems of sustainable agricultural land protection. Land protection in China is imminent. According to statistics, at present, the land desertification area has been expanding, reaching 1533000 square kilometers, accounting for 15.9% of the land area. The area of water and soil loss has increased unabated, accounting for 39% of the national area; The land quality has been declining. 59% of the cultivated land in the country is lack of phosphorus, 23% of potassium, 14% of both phosphorus and potassium, 30% of the cultivated land in provinces is lack of nitrogen, and the medium and low yield fields account for about 70% of the existing cultivated land; The destruction of land resources is serious. Due to various human factors, more than 200 million mu of abandoned land has been accumulated; The grassland in China is degraded by 30million Mu ~ 40million Mu every year, and the area of Desertification Grassland accounts for 50%; 70% of the grassland is arid and semi dry dry land. In the past 10 years, the national forest area has decreased by 23? 1%, which worsens the agricultural ecological environment and weakens the water storage capacity. Land pollution is becoming increasingly serious. "Three wastes" pollution from industry, with 6.7 million Hm2 of polluted farmland; 2.66 million Hm2 of agriculture affected by acid rain; The total area of industrial solid waste and urban domestic waste in China is 5.36 million Hm2, including 40000 hm2 of farmland. There is also pollution from agriculture itself, mainly the excessive application of pesticides, which leads to the change of soil physical and chemical properties, the decline of soil fertility and so on

therefore, it is urgent to research and develop the development project of special machinery and equipment for planting grass and trees to build terraces. Promote and develop a new type of ultra-low volume spray (powder) to reduce the droplet diameter to 15 μ m~75 μ m. Reduce the dosage of pesticides, improve the efficacy and control effect; Develop new types of agricultural film and increase the elongation at break recovery machinery and equipment to prevent and control the pollution of agricultural film

3 Stereoscopic Cultivation Technology and equipment and problems of sustainable agriculture. Agricultural three-dimensional cultivation includes three-dimensional planting, three-dimensional breeding, the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry, the combination of planting and breeding, courtyard economy and other modes. There are few mechanical equipment in this area. Intercropping and interplanting is a major problem in mechanization, so there is no power machine and supporting agricultural tools today; The development of farming technology and equipment for land cultivation is not much, and less can be used; Courtyard economy is rising, and there is no typical mechanical equipment development. Three dimensional cultivation technology and equipment are not only needed for sustainable agricultural development, but also urgently needed to be developed in the "three rural" market. 4 plant protection machinery is one of the key technical equipment for sustainable agricultural development with unit switching function. The occurrence and harm of biological disasters such as crop diseases and insect pests, grass and rats are a major obstacle to the high quality, high yield, high efficiency and sustainable development of agriculture. China has 233 million Hm2 ~ 2 of perennial diseases, pests, grass, rats and pests? 6.7 billion hm2. China uses more than 700000 tons of various chemical pesticides every year. On the one hand, it plays an important role in protecting agricultural production, on the other hand, it brings negative effects to the environment and ecosystem. Therefore, it is particularly important to make rational use of chemical control, biological control, physical control and other measures according to local conditions to achieve the purpose of economic, safe and effective control of pests, weeds and rats. However, most of the technical level and manufacturing quality of China's plant protection machinery products are only equivalent to the level of similar international products from the 1960s to 1970s. At present, the service life of manual spray and mobile plant protection machinery with good quality in China is only 1/2 of that of similar foreign products. The sprinkler of mobile plant protection machines and tools leaks seriously, and the atomization degree cannot meet the standard requirements. Large and advanced plant protection machinery technology, such as the suspended or towed low volume spray bar spray supporting agricultural aircraft and large and medium-sized tractors, is in urgent market demand

5 "seed engineering" equipment is the internal cause of sustainable agricultural development. The "seed engineering" equipment involves many aspects, such as wheat, corn, cotton, peanuts, vegetables, fruits, trees, etc. in the past, the development of planting and processing machinery and equipment was mostly field crops, and there were few other aspects. The complete production and processing equipment of improved seed equipment had few varieties and poor completeness, and the contradiction between market demand was prominent

6 facility agricultural equipment is an important industry of intensive and sustainable agriculture. Facility agriculture in China can achieve efficient and painless Drug Administration for enriching people's tables; The medical beauty micro needle roller, vegetable basket, fruit plate and flower bottle developed play an important role. By 1997, the cultivated area of facility agriculture in China had reached 8.67 billion Hm2, of which 4.07 billion hm2 were plastic medium and small arched sheds, accounting for 46.9%, and 2.33 billion hm2 were plastic greenhouses, accounting for 26.9%; All kinds of greenhouses (mainly Jieya genuine gold plate, which is the most successful product of modified EPS in China at present) are 2.27 billion Hm2, accounting for 26? 2%, including more than 100 hm2 of large modern multi span greenhouses. Although the development of facility agriculture in China is quite fast, the plastic greenhouse in China has no ventilation and temperature protection measures in summer, the temperature in the greenhouse is too high, there is no heating measures in winter, the insulation is poor, and the indoor temperature is low, so it cannot be produced. At present, the main problems of facility agricultural equipment are as follows: 1. The combination of agricultural machinery and agronomy is not close

mechanical transplanting agronomy requires efficient and reliable complete equipment for sowing and seedling raising and its supporting cultivation and transplanting machines and tools. The present precision seeders and transplanting machines are not mature enough, and their performance cannot meet the agronomic requirements. 2. The variety and quantity of facility agricultural equipment products are not suitable for its development. For example, there are a large number of film rolling motors, sunroof opening and closing motors and sunshade curtain pulling motors needed in greenhouses, and there are no finalized special products in China. For another example, the special heating equipment for greenhouse has few varieties and incomplete specifications, and the dehumidification and lighting equipment is basically blank. There are a few prototypes of seedling tray seeder, which is not mature enough. There is no reliable, economical and practical product for soil moisture and carbon dioxide concentration sensors commonly used in greenhouses. The fog cooler has not been developed in China. 3. The technical performance and quality problems of some facility agricultural equipment products are serious. For example, in terms of water-saving irrigation, there is a big gap between the performance and reliability of emitters and transition emitters and foreign similar advanced products, and the fertilizer pump with adjustable proportion is not qualified. Domestic wet curtains are all paper media cores, which are prone to moss and dirt after a long time of use, affecting the air volume and cooling effect. The frames are made of galvanized steel plate, which has poor corrosion resistance

according to the development scale of facility agriculture and the demand for its equipment, a new industrial output value of 130 million yuan can be created during the "Tenth Five Year Plan"

II. At the beginning of the 21st century, China's agricultural machinery products, which are the focus of intensive and sustainable agriculture development, are

1 Develop farming machinery products that adapt to the development of sustainable agricultural technology to meet the requirements of environmental protection, fertilizing soil and realizing high-quality, high-yield and high-efficiency agricultural production. (1) new products of tillage and land preparation machinery: 1 subsoiling and land preparation combined operation machine; 2. High clearance hanging plough; 3 paddy field land preparation and leveling combined operation machine; 4. Farmland film cleaning combined operation machine; 5 straw crushing and returning machine. (2) New products of seeder: 1. Soil preparation and seeding combined operation machine; 2. Wheat deep fertilization precision small amount seeder series; 3. Wheat film covered ridge and furrow seeder; 4 pneumatic precision seeder with no tillage, covering and fertilization; 5 Universal Film Mulching seeder. (3) New products of rice planting complete sets of equipment: 1. Rice factory seedling raising equipment; 2 high speed rice transplanter; 3 double cropping rice transplanter; 4. Rice direct seeding machine; 5 dry field transplanter. 2. Develop new products of plant protection machinery suitable for intensive and sustainable agricultural development to meet the requirements of reducing pesticide consumption and reducing pollution to agricultural products and land (1) new products of low-volume spray machinery: 1. Backpack low-volume spray series products, the key technology is a new type of manual liquid pump, fully sealed press switch, low-volume nozzle; 2. The key technology of the hanging low volume spray rod spray is the low-pressure series piston diaphragm pump combined distribution valve, automatic control, display and recording device, etc; 3 the key technology of the traction low volume spray bar spray is the same as the suspension low volume spray bar spray. (2) New plant protection machine series products: 1. Knapsack hydraulic atomization - pneumatic conveying spray series products, the key technology is small pumps, axial fans, etc; 2. The key technologies of the mobile rice field wide range spray series are the development of ceramic plunger pump, wide range long-range spray gun and automatic drug supply system; 3. The key technology of the small traction orchard air spray series is the development of axial flow fan and nozzle structure; The key technology of the normal temperature smoke machine series is the development of new pneumatic atomizing nozzle parameters, spray automatic timing and air supply automatic delay control system, etc

3. Develop intercropping and interplanting machinery products for intensive and sustainable agricultural technology development (1) high clearance tractor series: determine the tractor ground clearance according to the plant height of wheat and cotton, and the power is 36.8kw ~ 88.2kw wheeled tractor. (2) Intercropping and interplanting agricultural tools: matched with tractors, the seeder requires suspension, adjustable row spacing and semi precision. (3) New combine harvester: suitable for high-yield harvest of rice, wheat, corn and soybeans (such as 750KG ~ 900kg per mu of rice)

4. Develop new products of combine harvesters suitable for sustainable agricultural technology. (1) Semi feed self-propelled rubber track series combine harvester. (2) Corn combine harvester series products. (3) Grain longitudinal axial flow series combine harvester. (4) Full feed rice self-propelled series combine harvester: supporting power 14.7kw ~ 22.1kw, 29.4kW ~ 36? 7KW, 58.8kw, grounding pressure 0.24kg/cm2, degreasing rate 99%, cleaning rate 98.5%, cleaning loss rate 0.5%. Cut the stalks and return them to the field. Alarm system shall be installed for main working parts

5. Research and develop new products of main equipment of Facility Agricultural Technology (1) develop heating equipment for greenhouse. It is suitable for warm greenhouse heating in northern cold areas. Develop varieties of various specifications to adapt to different facility agricultural technologies. (2) Develop cooling equipment. Including wet curtain fan system and spray cooling system. (3) Develop the main equipment related to soilless cultivation. (4) Develop small power and supporting agricultural tools suitable for greenhouse. For example, light and small power machines and tools with low pollution, small size, multi-function and good process performance need to be specially developed for complete production and supply market. (5) Develop complete sets of high-efficiency seedling tray sowing equipment and planting and transplanting equipment. These products are not mature and reliable in China, and need to be vigorously developed to improve the effect of greenhouse use. (6) The greenhouse irrigation system will increase the specifications and varieties of water-saving irrigation facilities, and improve the reliability and service life of sprinkler and drip irrigation devices. 6. Develop new complete sets of seed production equipment suitable for sustainable agriculture (1) equipment required for the industrialization of crop seeds: 1 complete sets of equipment required for the production of seed breeding bases, including complete sets of equipment for tillage, sowing, harvesting, classification, storage, packaging, etc. 2. Instruments and meters required for seed quality identification and testing. 3. Equipment for impurity removal, grading, pelleting and other production required for seed processing. 4 seed dressing, awning, rubbing, coating and other seed treatment

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